3 World Trade Center

three_world_trade_center_-_2015_render
3 World Trade Center (also known as 175 Greenwich Street) is a skyscraper under construction as part of the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The project lies on the east side of Greenwich Street, across the street from the previous location of the Twin Towers, which were destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Richard Rogers, of Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, was awarded the contract to design the building, which will have a height of 1,079 ft (329 m) tall with 80 stories. As of August 2016, the building’s concrete core is topped out to maximum height, with the perimeter steel structure topped out on October 6, 2016. The building is slated to be completed in 2018.

Marriott World Trade Center was previously located at the address until its destruction in 2001. It was a 22-story steel-frame hotel with 825 rooms. It had a roof height of 242 feet (74 m). Construction began in 1979 and it opened in July 1981 as the Vista International Hotel.

Previous building (1979–2001)

The Marriott World Trade Center (bottom) below the Twin Towers.
The Marriott World Trade Center (bottom) below the Twin Towers.

The Marriott World Trade Center was a 22-story steel-framed hotel building with 825 rooms. It opened in July 1981 as the Vista International and was located at 3 World Trade Center in New York City.

The Vista International Hotel was the first hotel to open in Lower Manhattan since 1836. The building was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and was originally owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and KUO Hotels of Korea, with Hilton International acting as management agent. It was sold in 1995 to Host Marriott Corporation.

The hotel was connected to the North and South towers, and many went through the hotel to get to them. The hotel had a few establishments, including The American Harvest Restaurant, The Greenhouse Café, Tall Ships Bar & Grill, a store called Times Square Gifts, The Russia House Restaurant and a Grayline New York Tours Bus ticket counter. It also housed a gym that was the largest of any hotel in New York at the time, and a hair salon named Olga’s. The hotel also had 26,000 square feet (2,400 m2) of meeting space on the entire 3rd floor, along with the New Amsterdam Ballroom on the main floor. It was considered a four-diamond hotel by AAA.

The hotel was destroyed during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, as a result of the collapse of the Twin Towers. The hotel will not be replaced as part of the new World Trade Center complex, but will rather share its name with the new office tower.

New building

Background:

Construction of Three World Trade Center as of May 2012. A portion of the National 9/11 Memorial's South Pool can be seen in the foreground.
Construction of Three World Trade Center as of May 2012. A portion of the National 9/11 Memorial’s South Pool can be seen in the foreground.

3 World Trade Center was originally planned for a podium of seven stories for trading floors, with a 73-floor office tower rising from it. The diamond braces initially planned for the front and rear faces of the building have been dropped from the design and the tower is to be built without them. However, the diagonal bracing on the sides will remain. The four spires in the original design gave the tower a pinnacle height of 1,240 feet (378 m), meaning it would have become the third-tallest building in New York City by pinnacle height, but the spires were later removed from the design, thus reducing the height by about 88 feet (approximately 26.8 m). The total floor space of the building is planned to include 2,000,000 sq ft (190,000 m2) of office and retail space. The building’s groundbreaking took place in January 2008, and at that time it was scheduled to be completed by 2014. Unusually for a high-rise, the building’s concrete core would be built before the rest of the structure was completed. The structural engineer for the building is WSP. In November 2010, three PureCell fuel cells were delivered at the World Trade Center site which together will provide about 30% of the tower’s power.

Construction of Three World Trade Center as of April 2014.
Construction of Three World Trade Center as of April 2014.

On May 11, 2009, it was announced that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was seeking to reduce 175 Greenwich Street to a “stump” building of approximately four stories. The overall plan, which also called for a similar reduction in height for 2 World Trade Center and the cancellation of 5 World Trade Center, would halve the amount of office space available in the fully reconstructed World Trade Center to 5,000,000 sq ft (460,000 m2). The agency cited the recession and disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein as reasons for the proposed reduction. Silverstein opposed the plan, filing a notice of dispute on July 7, 2009. By doing so, the development firm began a two-week period during which renegotiated settlements and a binding arbitration regarding the construction of the four World Trade Center towers could be made. Silverstein Properties, which has paid the Port Authority over US$2.75 billion in financing, noted the organization’s inability to meet construction obligations in its official complaint.

The PATH station, Three World Trade Center, and Four World Trade Center (right)  at night in May 2016
The PATH station, Three World Trade Center, and Four World Trade Center (right) at night in May 2016

On October 2, 2012, the large advertising and media company GroupM was confirmed by several sources to be in the preliminary negotiations to anchor 3 World Trade Center in a deal that would allow construction to begin on the planned 80-story office tower. The lease would be about 550,000 square feet in size, a large enough commitment to qualify the project for up to $600 million in public benefits in the form of a mix of equity and loan guarantees from the city, the state, and the Port Authority.

Development:

By the beginning of 2012, Silverstein Properties and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reached an agreement to only build 3 World Trade Center to seven stories, unless tenants can be found to fund the building. According to a March 2010 agreement between Silverstein Properties and the Port Authority, Silverstein Properties must find tenants to lease 400,000 square feet of the building and it must raise US$300 million in private financing in order to receive additional funding. If Silverstein Properties meets those triggers, then the Port Authority, City of New York, and New York State will provide an additional US$390 million towards the tower’s completion. Silverstein Properties also needs to provide financing for the remaining cost of the tower before it can be completed. The existing foundation of the tower was built entirely with insurance proceeds, and until Silverstein Properties meets the requirements. The agreement also implemented a “cash trap” to make sure that public investments are paid off before Silverstein Properties makes any profits from the tower.

The tower portion of 3 World Trade Center will be fully built after meeting the requirements. Silverstein Properties is optimistic that leases will be signed. A spokesperson speaking on the issue of rebuilding the site commented: “Three WTC should be up by 2015; although; we do have one milestone to hit: We need to get a 400,000-square-foot tenant in order to get a financing backstop that makes sure we will complete that building. So, that’s a question mark, and it’s a major priority of Silverstein Properties”. The Port Authority believes that the 2010 agreement will allow market demand to drive the construction of the towers and help to limit public investment since the Port Authority has other projects that need attention in the region. In late June 2012, David Zalesne, president of Owen Steel, confirmed that construction of the tower will continue and that Owen Steel has been selected to provide the structural steel for the building. In July 2013 it was reported that GroupM had signed on with Silverstein Properties as the building’s anchor tenant, which would allow the tower to resume construction in late 2013.

A subsidy, which would have doubled the loan given to the construction of 3 World Trade Center, was postponed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in April 2014 until June 2014.

By February 2012, the ground floor concrete was almost done and the lower podium had reached the 5th floor. On May 18, 2012 a construction update was released which stated that the superstructure work was continuing, and that forms, rebar, and concrete placement work was also continuing. Additionally, utilities for the site were being installed. The construction agency expected the lower podium to reach a capped height of 7 stories by September 2012. As of August 2013, construction on the podium is nearly complete, and work on the rest of the podium and the tower will continue in January 2014, when the tower crane is returned to the site.

On June 25, 2014, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reached an agreement with Larry Silverstein to finance the completion of 3 World Trade Center, and construction of the tower resumed. The tower crane has been returned and the new anticipated completion is late 2017.

During 2015 the design was modified and the height reduced slightly from 1,168 feet (356 m) to its current height of 1,079 feet (329 m). As of June 2015, 3 World Trade Center’s core has risen to the 19th floor and steel to the 14th floor. On June 28, 2015, one more tower crane has been built on the site. Another crane arrived in July, bringing the total to four cranes. On May 20, 2016, the tower’s concrete core reached the symbolic height of 1000 feet, thus officially reaching supertall status and exceeding the roof height of neighboring 4 World Trade Center.

On June 23, 2016, 3 World Trade Center’s core was topped out. In a ceremony held at the base of the building, a 2-ton bucket of concrete was signed by workers, and executives, including developer Larry Silverstein, and was hosted up with an American flag, which was also used with the topping out of 7 and 4 World Trade Center, to the top of the tower. On October 6th 2016, the last steel beam was lifted and installed on top.

On the evening of August 11, 2016, a construction crane struck one of 3 World Trade Center’s windows. There was a heavy wind gust at the time, and construction workers were securing the crane when it veered into a 12th-story glass panel, cracking it. No one was injured.

General Information:

Construction started:
2010

Estimated completion:
2018

Cost:
US$2.75 billion

Owner:
World Trade Center Properties, LLC

Height:
1,079 ft (329 m)

Floor count:
80

Floor area:
2,232,984 sq ft (207,451.0 m2)

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